PSE Book

ONLY the PSE®, technology for Voice Stress Analysis™, training techniques and chart analysis procedures were invented only by Dektor® in 1969. Only Dektor’s complete system has been validated by the U.S. government for 45 years.

Only the PSE® and Dektor’s truth verification system had a 200 page book, independently published in 1980, proving Dektor’s system was completely valid for truth verification and psychological evaluations. NO other imitation “voice lie detector” or “computer voice analyzer” has that. The book is titled “Investigative Proof of the Reliability and Value of the Psychological Stress Evaluator in Science, Medicine and Law”. It was written by Mr. Michael Kradz. Mr. Kradz was a highly trained polygraph examiner, he was one of the founding members of the American Polygraph Association in 1965, he had a Master’s Degree in Psychology, and was former Chief of Detectives in Maryland. His very long and impressive resume can be read further down.

The complete book can be read on our website or you can order the book itself by contacting Dektor. The book is $100usd. The book is a must have to read and own by people who are serious about using the PSE and Voice Stress Analysis for lie detection.

Mr. Michael Peter Kradz


1947 – High school diploma awarded from Candler High School, Candler, NC.

1945-1948 – On the job training at the Ashville, NC City and County Bureau of Investigation,
sponsored by the U.S. Veterans Administration. Training embraced fingerprints and palmprints
(1000 hours), criminal investigation, handwriting, photograph, firearms, modus operandi (1876
hours), police duties, criminal and accident investigations(1500 hours), police administration (376

1945-1947 – Institute of Applied Science, Chicago IL. Extension course embracing Police
Identification, photograph, investigation.

1945-1951 – La Salle Extension University, Chicago, IL. A complete course in the study of law.

1946 – Institute of Government Extension Service, Chapel Hill, NC. Course in constitutional law
and the laws of North Carolina. Note: the extension courses were used by my instructor as the
texts during the 36 months of on the job training.

1948 – Dell School of Medical Technology, Asheville, NC. Six months training awarded in
conjunction with the 36 months on the job training covering histology, chemistry, parasitology,
serology, physiology, laboratory practice, microscopic examinations and identifications.

1955-1958 – On the job training as a member of the 275th CIC  and 373rd CID Reserve Groups of
the US Army in investigation and technically related subjects.

1959-1960 – American Board of Photography, Chicago, IL. Extension course on general

1961 – International Grapho Analysis Society, Chicago, IL. Extension work in the study of
handwriting. Completed the general course in grapho analysis, studying psychology in

1962 – Gormac School of Polygraph, Pasadena, CA. Courses include physiology, psychology,
interrogation, criminal law, and polygraph instrumentation (8 weeks).

1962-1963 – Air University , US Air Force Extension Service. Course in law enforcement and
corrections, including administration, report writing, surveillance, interrogation, investigation,
law and penology.

1963 – Completed course in radiology monitoring at the state of Maryland Civil Defense Agency.

1965 – Identi-Kit School, Metropolitan Police Department, Washington, DC. Simulating faces of
suspects through information from victims and witnesses by using plastic foils.

1967 – Food and Drug seminar, University of Maryland. Lectures in the identification of and laws
concerning drug abuse.

1967 – Advanced criminal investigators course, Maryland State Police Academy. Studies
included law, interrogation, collection and preservation of evidence, homicide investigation,
arson investigation, narcotics investigation, penology, security systems and recent Supreme
Court decisions. (2 weeks)

1967 – FBI seminar at Ft. George G. Meade, MD. Discussions on planning, evaluating and
decision making for supervisors.

1968 – Catonsville Community College, Catonsville, MD. Law Enforcement Program. Working
towards an AA Degree in Police Administration.

1969 – Zanerian College of Penmanship. The study of handwriting systems.

1969 – University of Maryland. Civil Defense Radiological Defense Officer Course and
Instructors Course.

1971 – Northwestern University Traffic Institute. Principals of Police Management.

1971 – Maryland Polygraph Examiner’s Seminar, AA County Community college, AA county,

1971 – A.A. Degree, Essex Community College, Essex, MD, Police Administration.

1971 – Dektor, PSE examiners’s course. Certificate in the training for the PSE for lie detection.


1943-1945 – US Navy, Honorably discharged as a petty officer, 3rd class.

1947-1955 – US Army Reserves, 275th CIC and 373rd CID. Honorably discharged as a
Master Sergeant.

1958-1963 – Maryland Air National Guard, Air Force Section Superintendent.
Honorably discharged as a Master Sergeant.


1. International Association for Identification
2. Maryland arson Association
3. Academy for Forensic Science
4. International Polygraph Association
5. American Polygraph Association (charter member)
6. International Society of Stress Analysts (charter member)
7. American Association of Criminology
8. Police Instructors Association of Maryland
9. Association to Advance Ethical Hypnosis
10. Fraternal Order of Police (charter member HCPD)
11. License Polygraph Examiner in the state of Virginia
12. International Grapho-Analysis Society
13. The International Association of Chiefs of Police
14.  International Association of Arson Investigators


December 1945 to February 1950 – Employed by city and County Bureau of
Identification, Asheville, NC as a identification technician.

February 1950 to October 1962 – Employed by Maryland State Police as an
Identification Expert II and promoted to Identification Expert I.

October 1962 to March 1963 – Employed with Metropolitan Bureau of
Investigation, Baltimore, MD as an investigator and to establish polygraph

March 1963 to October 1972 – Employed by Howard County Police department,
held the rank of Lieutenant in charge of the administration and Technical Services

October 1972 thru 2001 – employed by Dektor as a criminologist and director of the
Psychological Stress Evaluator Training program.


City and County Bureau of Identification, Sheriff’s office, Asheville, NC. Identification Technician, fingerprinted and photographed prisoner for identification purposes. Classified and filed fingerprints, developed photographs of persons arrested and processed film taken by others at crime scenes, visited crime scenes for the purpose of collecting evidence, taking photographs, developing
finger and palm prints, and preserving other types of evidence for processing for other technicians, testifying in courts as an expert witness to fingerprint and palm print identification.

Maryland State Police: Identification expert assigned to the division of  Identification and Investigation. Acted as fourth supervisor to Central Records Section housing all records and correspondence. Primary duty was making examinations regarding physical evidence submitted to the department from its personnel and from other departments. Testified in court to the findings of the examinations as an expert witness. Taught in the Police Academy to recruits in-service schools for both department employees and other agencies. Conducted on the job training for personnel assigned to the Crime Laboratory.

Metropolitan Bureau of Investigation: conducted security surveys for industry regarding plant security, ran polygraph examinations regarding specific instances, set up security forces for clients and the administration thatwas entailed with this
function. Made investigations regarding breaches in security, both internal and externally and processed physical evidence connected with the aforementioned problems. Trained personnel for the guard forces and investigation sections.

Howard County Police Department: I was asked to take a position with the Howard County Police Department for the expressed purpose of helping to reorganize the then eight man force into a self supporting department which was in the process of
enlarging to compensate for the new city of Columbia being built in the county. I accepted and held the rank of Lieutenant in charge of the Administration and Technical Services division. I set up and staffed and trained personnel to be operational in the records section. This entailed devising a system, writing procedures, designing forms and budgeting. Established and equipped photographic laboratory. Wrote procedures and trained personnel to make it operational. Set up, equipped, staff trained and supervised the investigative section, crime laboratory responsible for examinations, evidence and polygraphs, testified in court as an expert witness regarding physical evidence.

Dektor, Counter Intelligence & Security:  Director of the Psychological Stress Evaluator (PSE) training program to teach the practical application of the PSE instrument that detects stress in the voice without the use of sensors. Secondarily,
a PSE Analyst, polygraph examiner confirming other PSE examiners work, thirdly performing services for clients as an analyst and criminalist.


1. University of Maryland Law enforcement Seminars.
2. Harvard Associates for Police Science.
3. Maryland State Police Academy.
4. Howard County Police Department.
5. U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigation.
6. U.S. Army Counterintelligence In-Service School.
7. U.S. Army Criminal Investigators In-Service Schools.
8. Office of Naval Intelligence-5th Naval District.
9. Montgomery County College, Police Science.
10. Maryland Air National Guard- Air Police
11. U.S. Army Reserves – Provost Marshal’s Office.
12. Howard County Bar Association.
13. Certified Instructor with Maryland Police Training Commission and hold a
General Certificate.
14. Local Police Departments throughout state of Maryland.
15. Foreign police exchange students.
16. Maryland State Fire Service, at University of Maryland for Arson
17. Maryland State Attorneys & Public Defenders – Statewide training seminar
on technical and scientific evidence.
18. Director and instructor in the Psychological Stress Evaluator school at
Springfield Virginia.


For the Federal Government, states, counties municipalities, private concerns, individuals and foreign organizations regarding criminalistics, Psychological Stress Evaluator, and polygraph.


Circuit Courts in all but one county in Maryland: Baltimore City. N. Carolina, West Virginia: U.S. Federal Court. Gave testimony regarding finger and palm prints, footwear, tire impressions, tool marks, restoration of numbers, handwriting, typewriting, check writers, laundry and cleaner marks, firearms, polygraph and the Psychological Stress Evaluator.


In courts in Maryland, Washington DC, North Carolina, and Virginia.


A system of identification used today in the Maryland State Police Laboratory in Criminalistics; designed equipment and a system of identification that is being used in law enforcement; prepared courses of instruction which are used in several law enforcement departments concerning investigations identification and intelligence. Responsible for the first crime labfacilities, mobile unit and civil disaster unit in the Maryland State Police to service not only the Maryland State Police, but any other agency requesting assistance.


1971-1972 – Conducted validation studies of the Psychological Stress Evaluator and the conventional polygraph concerning the detection of deception using persons who were actually involved in 44 real live situations. Presently engaged with testing the modification and model changes on the Psychological Stress