There are only two proven types of lie detection systems today: PSE®(first invented by the original Dektor in 1969) and the polygraph (computer polygraph). The original polygraph was created about 1917. Since 1990, almost all polygraph examiners are using the computerized polygraph machine. There are four different companies selling them. However, the computer polygraph still must use the painful and very unnatural attached wires. The computer polygraph still has the same problems of the old polygraph machines that used inkwells. Some polygraph examiners still use the old machines that have inkwells. The same inkwells Ben Franklin used to write letters in 1770. The computer polygraph still requires 8 long, expensive and continuous weeks of training to learn. The computer polygraph results are still affected by drugs, alcohol, and manual manipulations, also called counter-measures. Those counter-measures have proved to easily fool the computer polygraph examiner to think the subject is guilty, when in fact they are innocent or the computer polygraph examiner thinks the subject is innocent, when the subject is actually guilty. There are many websites on the internet that teach a person how to use counter-measures. The computer polygraph still has “inconclusive. That means the computer polygraph examiner still does not know the correct answer. There are more and more attached wires to the subject that are supposed to detect counter-measures. Usually, they do not detect those counter-measures. Most computer polygraph examiners do not use those extra wires to detect counter-measures. Only the PSE® always uses a audio recording to preserve all conversation and any confessions that can be used in court as evidence. The polygraph and the computer polygraph still do not use any audio recording. Clearly, the polygraph is still a very expensive machine and still has a very long training period that has many limitations and drawbacks.
The U.S. government has changed the name several times of their “department” that is the center of the polygraph business for unknown reasons. In 1951, it was originally called the U.S. Army Polygraph School. In the 1980’s, it was called Department of Defense Polygraph Institute (DoDPI). In 2007, it was changed again to Defense Academy for Credibility Assessment (DACA). In 2010, it was changed again to the National Center for Credibility Assesment (NCCA). No matter how many times the name of the polygraph department is changed, it is the SAME old flawed device, using unreliable training, unreliable technology and is still affected by the same limitations, drawbacks and inconclusives that has affected the polygraph for the last 75 years.
When PSE was first sold in 1970, there was a stampede to buy PSE and use it in both the private sector and law enforcement. Huge numbers of polygraph examiners were dropping the outdated and primitive polygraph for the modern PSE. Because of the many polygraph defections to PSE, the polygraph business (APA) began, in about 1975, to pass laws in each state with a very secret clause. The clause defined “lie detector” as only a polygraph machine, thus forbidding any other type of lie detection system, mainly PSE. At one time, about 18 states had those polygraph only laws. Over the years, almost all of those states repealed those “polygraph only” laws. Since America is based on free enterprise, maybe the American Polygraph Association should change their name to the “Un”-American Polygraph Association because of their obsession at only having a polygraph as the lie detector for everybody. Instead of demanding accuracy of their machines, training techniques, ethics and morals from their polygraph examiners and their polygraph schools, the APA organization (including its members) chose to waste time using lies to try to eliminate the only truth verification system that had been proven superior to the polygraph system in terms of reliability, effectiveness and validity. That system was and still is Voice Stress Analysis and the PSE. It was a former U.S. Colonel of Counter-Intelligence and a US government trained polygraph examiner who co-invented the PSE system in 1970. It was another former U.S. Government trained polygraph examiner, with a Master’s Degree in Psychology, who wrote and published a book in 1981 that validated the complete PSE technology and Dektor’s exclusive training techniques system.
Many independent articles and studies have documented the very flawed polygraph technology and techniques. The National Academies of Science (NAS) is a worldwide organization of experts that began in 1863. In 2003, NAS published a very long and detailed book called The Polygraph and Lie Detection. The experts in NAS basically destroyed the credibility of the technology and training techniques that have been used by the polygraph business since polygraph began in about 1917. The NAS experts showed why the polygraph system should not be used for truth verification because of its lack of credibility.
In 1988, the U.S. Congress passed a law called EPPA: Employee Polygraph Protection Act. The EPPA was a federal law that was the result of decades of gross incompetence and acts of corruption in the polygraph business. The general public demanded such a law be passed because they had been victims of such incompetence and corruption from the polygraph business. The APA (created in 1965) had existed for almost 25 years, but still had not been able to clean up the mess by the time the EPPA was passed. The APA still was not able to keep their technology, training and examiners at a high level of reliability and credibility.
The polygraph, including the “computer polygraph”, has been proven by studies for decades to be a very outdated form of truth verification. The polygraph business has never been able to agree on machine formats or training techniques. The polygraph device continues to be changed by adding more wires for foot pads, seat pads, finger clips, etc to detect counter-measures. A drug dictionary was added to the polygraph to tell the examiner what functions will be affected by which drugs, legal and non-legal. Different training and testing techniques are constantly being “invented”. But, the APA seems to keep saying “This time the accuracy is better”. Among its many limitations and drawbacks, polygraph tests need to be done in a “sterile” room so the subject cannot use objects in the room to conduct a counter-measure to “beat” the test. The APA says a special chair should be used for the polygraph test. The chair costs about $600, but almost nobody has bought it. A seat pad has been added to detect counter-measures from the butt. A foot pad has been also added to detect counter-measures by the feet.
It must be pointed out that it is up to the person taking the test to admit to any drugs or alcohol he is taking. Drugs include even common cold medications. Without this information, a innocent person can be falsely accused or a guilty person of a crime will go free. At no time has the APA ever demanded that all of its polygraph examiners must use the latest polygraph equipment when that equipment comes out. It appears the APA is not concerned that its members use old and outdated equipment that could allow criminals to go free to commit new crimes and for innocent people to be falsely accused of a crime. That leaves the public at the mercy of outdated polygraph machines that will be used to decide their future. Clearly, polygraph and computer polygraph are very primitive devices for lie detection and could be equated to a horse and buggy for transportation. The PSE is a modern jet plane.
About June 2008, the US military began to deploy a gadget called PCASS in Iraq. The PCASS was created because of the war in Iraq and the desire to screen Iraqi people very quickly before they entered a US base to determine if those people were friends or terrorists. The belief in the military is anything can be invented if enough money is thrown at it. They failed to understand that lie detection cannot be done in one or two minutes. Because of the strangle hold APA and the polygraph has had in government for more than 50 years, the military only thought a polygraph type device could be used. The military spent (wasted) about $2 million of the taxpayer’s money for the gadget. The polygraph business came up with a gadget called PCASS. Through the years, the polygraph business kept adding more and more wires to be attached to the subject. Polygraph people seem to think more wires make a better gadget. But, with PCASS, only 2 wires are used. Instead of multiple waveforms that are displayed on regular polygraph machines, PCASS uses 3 colors as answers. Red means lie, green means truth and yellow means inconclusive. The military bought 100 of the PCASS devices at $7,000 each. PCASS only had a few parlor game type studies before the devices were sent to Iraq to be used by the US military against possible Taliban or Al qaeda terrorists. Those PCASS studies had only shown slightly better accuracy than a flip of a coin. But, the polygraph business thought those results were good enough for PCASS to be used for lie detection. PCASS was a clear waste of American tax dollars and put national security, including our soldiers, at grave risk. The real problem is both the Taliban and Al Qaeda training manuals have sections that describe how to beat the polygraph. Since the terrorists know how to beat the polygraph, it would be very foolish to believe any polygraph results after a test is given to the Taliban or Al Qaeda terrorists.
In the field of truth verification, it would be obvious that the PSE be compared to the polygraph. The polygraph was invented in about 1917 and the computer polygraph was invented about 1988. There are similarities between them. PSE and polygraph measure physiological changes caused by psychological stress. They both use controlled test procedures to decide truth or deception. However, there are major differences between PSE and polygraph. Those differences prove why the PSE continues to be vastly superior for truth verification over polygraph, computer polygraph and imitation “voice lie detectors”.
The following are a few comparisons between the PSE and polygraph/computer polygraph. PSE is the clear winner!
- PSE 7010 can be used on any PC, touch tablet or smart phone.
Computer polygraph cannot.
- PSE® 7010 has many different ways and sizes to show each answer for complete accuracy.
Polygraph and computer polygraph only have one way and one size to show each answer and only one size
- PSE® is completely accurate using yes, no or narrative responses.
Polygraphs ONLY do yes and no answers and their accuracy is unreliable.
- PSE only uses the voice and does not need any painful attached wires.
All polygraphs must use painful attached wires. Polygraphs continue to add more and more attached wires to try to compensate for the problems, limitations, and drawbacks of the outdated polygraph machine. More and more wires are used to detect “counter measures”. A drug dictionary is used to determine if drugs used by the subject will fool the polygraph examiner. A special chair is sold (about $600) that must be used to test a subject. Sensors in the armrest must be bought to detect if the subject moves his arm. Feet pads must be bought to detect any movement by the feet. About 1990, a major court ruled the polygraph can cause Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome because all of the attached wires can make a person feel like they are sitting in the electric chair.
- PSE tests can be done in person (overtly or covertly), men or women, children, in any language, from the phone, from a TV, radio, or any earlier audio tape or video tape.
All polygraph tests can only be done overtly in person during real-time.
- PSE tests can be given to anyone.
Polygraph tests can NOT be given to people with certain medical problems, behavior problems, intoxicated, on prescribed drugs, illegal drugs and/or breathing problems.
- PSE tests can be done overtly or covertly for a unique investigative ability.
All polygraph tests can ONLY be done with the person aware of the test.
- PSE displays each single syllable of an utterance and it can be evaluated for a stress level.
All polygraphs are only capable of displaying relative stress levels.
- PSE signal processes the raw input, which greatly reduces the training time required and the subjectivity of the chart analysis.
All polygraphs display raw unprocessed traces. This complicates chart understanding and increases examiner training time.
- PSE responses are basically instantaneous.
All polygraph responses are the end result of body functions that usually take up to about 25 seconds before the body’s responses return to normal which causes problems.
- PSE is not affected by any counter-measures.
ALL polygraphs (regular and computer) are affected by many types of counter-measures, including drugs, alcohol, and manual manipulations. Those counter-measures cannot be detected all of the time thus causing unreliable test results.
- PSE never has “inconclusives”, the examiner will always know the answer.
All polygraphs suffer from “inconclusives”, so the examiner cannot make a decision if the subject is lying or telling the truth. That wastes time, money, and investigative man-hours.
- PSE tests can be given anywhere.
All polygraphs require a “sterile” room for testing AND a special chair or the polygraph accuracy results will be further reduced.
- PSE has always recorded the interview to protect everyone’s rights. This includes any confessions. Recording the interview also eliminates lawsuits that could be caused by false allegations made by the subject.
NO polygraph uses a tape recorder and DO NOT have the benefits of the tape recorder. Confessions will always be lost.
- PSE only uses the one proven technology for Voice Stress Analysis™.
Several computer polygraph makers use a software that was condemned for reliability and accuracy at a CIA conference.
- PSE is sold as a complete package. NO extras need to be bought.
There are many, many polygraph attachments that cost thousands of dollars more than the “base” price. Those devices constantly break and need replacing, adding more to the cost of a polygraph.
- PSE only needs 10 days of training because of its simple operation and easy chart interpretation.
Polygraphs MUST have at least 8 weeks of training because their complicated system is very hard to learn. That adds tens of thousands of dollars to the cost of owning a (computer)polygraph machine AND because polygraph is so complicated, mistakes will be made that will cause even lower polygraph accuracy.
- Only Dektor sells the PSE and does the training.
There are different polygraph makers. Some sell non lie detector products. There are many, many polygraph “schools”. Their quality has been shown to be unreliable. One polygraph school was found to have cheated students out of classroom hours.
- PSE 7010 can be used with the 64 bit computers.
Computer polygraph cannot.
- PSE 7010 is NOT affected by computer virus’s.
The computer polygraph program can be infected with virus’s and many problems will be caused by that.
Those are some of the many reasons why polygraph examiners have been changing to the various PSE® and Voice Stress Analysis® systems for truth verifications since 1969.